explicit doctrines and religious afﬁliations, on the other. punishing norm violators and rewarding norm followers. This does not, mean, however, that there is a necessary link between, some religious concepts and beliefs need certain cultural, input in order to become adopted and to persist. Consistent with the hypothesis that young children possess a promiscuous teleological tendency, Study 1 found that children were more Likely than adults to broadly explain the properties of both living and nonliving natural kinds in teleological terms, although the kinds of functions that they endorsed varied with age. Participants scoring high on measures of devout, intrinsic religion helped the gay discloser less than the non-gay, even when their help would not promote homosexuality. sacriﬁce: When philosophical and folk intuitions clash. The authors discuss the results of their own research and other recent studies on moral development, sociocultural variation of moral judgements as well as the dynamics of psychophysiological processes during moral judgement. The content of religious moral ideas therefore reflects the content of an (evolved) morality which does not hinge on religion. Trinitarian Faith Seeking Transformative Understanding, Religious Experience, Cognitive Science, and the Future of Religion, Toward A Comprehensive Integration Of Science and Religion: A Post‐metaphysical Approach, The Pre‐modern Sins of Intelligent Design, Emergence, Theology, and the Manifest Image, Feminist Perspectives in Medicine and Bioethics, Environmental Ethics and Religion/Science, Biotechnology and the Religion—Science Discussion, Relations Between Homo Sapiens and Other Animals: Scientific and Religious Arguments, Concluding Reflections: Dover Beach Revisited. about harm interact with folk-moral judgments. Although religious scripture often invokes some, Catholicism dating back to Saint Thomas Aquinas there, effect of bringing about some greater good, but forbidden to, harm someone as a means to the greater good), these rules, cannot account for the variation in moral judgment, observed. These studies, carried out using the web-based Moral, sands of male and female subjects, with educational levels. A collection of my top papers published just before 15 years work with Austin Burt on Genes in Conflict 2006, over 1000 citations itself. Evolutionary Studies Alter our Understanding of Religion. focused primarily on the child’s path to moral maturity. The evolution of “theory of mind” and, specifically, the “intentionality system” (a cognitive system devoted to making inferences about the epistemic contents and intentions of other minds), strongly favoured: (1) the selection of human psychological traits for monitoring and controlling the flow of social information within groups; and (2) attributions of life events to supernatural agency. They argue that the cognitive science of religion (CSR) indicates that we have a ‘god-faculty’, a notion employed by Alvin Plantinga. Here we turn to an experimental and theoretical literature, that has had little or no impact on the study of religion as, an originally evolved adaptation: experimental moral psy-, chology. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. ), In pp. for a relationship of Israeli religious and secular kibbutzim. entity: Anthropomorphism in God concepts. Prenatal MS organizes auditory, proprioceptive, and biochemical stimuli (voice, heartbeat, footsteps, digestion, body movements, biochemicals) that depend on maternal physical/emotional state. What is open to cross-cultural, variation is something similar to a suite of parameters, perhaps, defaulting to some value in all individuals, but set by each culture. First, ‘religion’ is a vague category with no clear, boundaries or essence; thus, it is difﬁcult to determine, whether a particular belief or action is religious or not, This poses a problem for any explanation of ‘‘religion’’ as an, entity-like whole. Guided by their everyday experience, they, construe death in biological terms as the breakdown, of all vital functions, but see it as the beginning of a, different form of existence in a ritual context. owner of the body, but we are not the same as our bodies. emotions, more likely to continue after death than others, intuitive dualists in the sense that we feel our ‘self’ to be the. The first note either did or did not reveal that the discloser was gay; the second revealed that the discloser wanted the money for an activity that either would or would not promote homosexuality. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Two studies explored the tendency of adults and first-, second-, and fourth-grade elementary-school children to explain the properties of living and nonliving natural kinds in teleological terms. Let us suppose that this enterprise is successful and that central contributions are true or at least approximately true. and intelligent design in children’s reasoning about nature. What Huebner and Hauser argued, however, is that although there are signiﬁcant evolutionary press-, ures against such acts of radical altruism, religious press-, ures might lead people to offer this judgment because they, believe it is the morally appropriate answer. The burdens that religion imposes - its opportunity costs, resource outlays, and risks - appear in vivid contrast to nature's thrift. On the weak analogy, there will be many ways in which language, and morality differ, but we should engage with the kinds of questions, and problems that have engaged linguistics since the start of the, generative tradition. Judgments about the fairness of practices entailing inequalities produce social opposition and moral resistance. I)) (McNamara, P., ed. These two. This difference is significant for how RE and CSR relate. Theorists of religion have long noticed that the pomp and ritual expressions of religion, and the affective delirium that accompanies it, enhance coordination and solidarity. acquisition of a subsequent, different religion? How can the adaptationist and by-product views be synthesized? Although this research has explored many fasci-, nating problems, here we present a set of ﬁndings that, speaks to the idea that moral intuitions operate indepen-, dently of religious background and, more importantly, do, not require religious input. Here, in findings replicated across socio-religiously disparate samples studied in the U.S. and Afghanistan, implicit learning of patterns/order within visuospatial sequences (IL-pat) in a strongly bottom-up paradigm predict 1) stronger belief in an intervening/ordering god, and 2) increased strength-of-belief from childhood to adulthood, controlling for explicit learning and parental belief. support reasoning are more general in scope. Thus, is there a distinction between competence, and performance? c 2010 Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research. In particular, traditional scientific tests (i.e., validation vs. calibration for reliability; out-of-sample estimations vs. numerical simulations for feasibility) and recent scientific tests (i.e., invariance under observations vs. interventions for robustness of relationships; holism vs. individualism for aggregation requirements; and causal mechanisms vs. evolutionary processes for stability of equilibria) are applied to these examples to demonstrate how moral philosophy and theology (respectively) can function as instances of empirical behavioural science (i.e., by assessing observed actions in real contexts using scientifically sound procedures). ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would first and foremost like to … Recent collaborative projects include Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue (with Stephen Post et al.) On the, strong analogy, there will be one-to-one mappings between the, computations and representations underlying the language faculty, and our moral faculty, even though each domain will have its own, dedicated representations, as well as interfaces with other mind-. EVOLUTION AND RELIGION: THEORY, DEFINITIONS, AND THE NATURAL SELECTION OF RELIGIOUS BEHAVIOR Presented by Ryan M. Ellsworth, a candidate for the degree of Master of Arts, Anthropology, and hereby certify that, in their opinion, it is worthy of acceptance. Scott Atran and Joseph Henrich [An] advancement in the standard of morality and an increase in the number of well-endowed men . In human evolution, bipedalism and encephalization led to earlier births and more fragile infants. . Contemporary historiographic critiques of science–religion warfare notwithstanding, there is no denying that Darwinism has been seen by both advocates and critics as challenging important theological beliefs of the Abrahamic traditions. Thus, ‘‘the, general idea of an afterlife is not so much implanted in, people’s heads by way of ‘exposure’ to counterintuitive, in cultural transmission because it effectively parasitizes, other evolved cognitive structures. longevity: A test of the costly signaling theory of religion. linguistics, are based on a set of unconscious computations (i.e. 1 Johnson, D. and Bering, J.